- Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites.
- The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called “malaria vectors”,
Why in the news?
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) has released the World Malaria Report, 2020.
About the report
- The report provides a comprehensive update on global and regional malaria data and trends including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, elimination and surveillance.
- It gives the estimated cases for malaria across the world, based on mathematical projections.
Key highlights of World Malaria Report 2020:
- India continues to make Impressive Gains in reduction of Malaria Burden
- India is the only high endemic country which has reported a decline of 17.6% in 2019 over 2018
- India has sustained Annual Parasitic Incidence (API) of less than one since 2012
- The Annual Parasitic Incidence (API) reduced by 27.6% in 2018 compared to 2017 and by 18.4% in 2019 as compared to 2018.
- India has also contributed to the largest drop in cases region-wide, from approximately 20 million to about 6 million.
- India achieved a reduction of 83.34% in malaria morbidity and 92% in malaria mortality between the year 2000 and 2019 thereby achieving Goal 6 of the Millennium Development Goals (50-75% decrease in case incidence between 2000 and 2019).
- Malaria has been made notifiable in 31 states/UTs and decline has been observed in the hitherto high endemic states like Odisha, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
Steps taken by Indian government to eliminate malaria
- Malaria Elimination efforts were initiated in the country in 2015 and were intensified after the launch of National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME) in 2016 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination (2017-22) was launched by the Health Ministry in July, 2017 which laid down strategies for the next five years.
- Efforts were made by the Government of India in provision of microscopes, rapid diagnostics Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs).
- They are being supplied/distributed to high burden areas leading to reduction in endemicity in these otherwise very high endemic states.
Steps taken at global level
- WHO has initiated the High Burden to High Impact (HBHI) initiative in 11 high malaria burden countries, including India to enhance response to malaria in those countries.