- Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which is a virus of the capripoxvirus genus in the poxviridae family. Sheeppox virus and goatpox virus are the other members of the genus capripoxvirus.
- The LSDV mainly affects cattle — cow and its progeny, and the Asian water buffaloes.
- LSD outbreaks occur in epidemics several years apart. The existence of a specific reservoir for the virus is not known, nor is it known as to how and where the virus survives between epidemics.
- LSD was long restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. However, over the past decade, it spread to the Middle East and Turkey. From 2015 onward, it has impacted the Balkan (southeast Europe) countries, Caucus (eastern Europe) and Russia.
- LSD entered India, Bangladesh and China in July 2019. Since then, outbreaks of the disease have been reported from 20 Indian states.
How does it spread?
- The LSDV spreads through blood-sucking vectors like ticks and mites like houseflies, mosquitoes, etc. It also spreads through contaminated water, fodder and feed.
- LSDV attacks the circulatory system of an animal and causes vasculitis or inflammation of blood vessels and lesions in various organs like liver, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes etc.
Why in News?
- The government said around over eight lakh animals have been vaccinated against Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) in the country during the year 2022-23.