- The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) was launched in 2014 to fulfil the vision of a cleaner India by 2 October 2019, as a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary.
- The campaign is one of the biggest-ever drives to accelerate efforts towards achieving universal sanitation coverage, improving cleanliness and eliminating open defecation in India. The Mission comprises components such as the construction of individual household toilets, community and public toilets, and solid and liquid waste management, etc.
- It has 2 components – urban and rural.
- SBM Urban aims for the elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.
- SBM Rural aims to make India an open defecation free country. It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitised.
- The urban component of the mission is implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, and the rural component by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti.
Phase II of SBM Rural
- In 2020, the Union Cabinet approved the Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) till 2024-25.
- It will focus on Open Defecation Free Plus (ODF Plus), which includes ODF sustainability and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM).
- The program will also work towards ensuring that no one is left behind and everyone uses a toilet.
Phase II of SBM Urban
- The government launched Urban Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0 in 2021. It will stress on further strengthening of the ‘swachhata’ (cleanliness) campaign of urban India.
- The government intends to focus on complete faecal sludge management and wastewater treatment, source segregation of garbage, reduction in single-use plastic, reduction in air pollution, especially waste from construction and demolition, and bio-remediation of dumpsites.
- Recently, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has launched the Revised Swachh Certification Protocols for ODF, ODF+, ODF++, and Water+ certifications for Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0.
- The revamped revised protocol is aligned with SBM-2.0 objectives and is designed to ensure:
- No untreated used water or faecal sludge is discharged into the environment and all used water (including sewerage and septage, grey water and black water) is safely contained, transported, and treated, along with maximum reuse of treated used water, in all cities with less than 1 lakh population.
- To sustain open defecation free status in all statutory towns.
- It contains provisions to encourage cities to have robust infrastructure with reliable Operation & Maintenance (O&M) mechanisms to achieve the goal of clean urban India.
- Key interventions against each certification are:
- ODF – Robust monitoring mechanism ensured by increasing the number of survey sample size and location types.
- ODF+ – Focus on functionality of Community & Public Toilets (CT & PT) and innovative O&M business model for their sustainability in the long run.
- ODF++ – Emphasis on mechanized cleaning of septic tanks and sewers. Safe collection & treatment of used water as well as safe management of faecal sludge.
- Water+ – The focus is on collection, transportation, treatment, and reuse of both used water and faecal sludge to prevent environmental pollution.
Why in News?
- Over one lakh villages have declared themselves as open defecation-free (ODF) Plus. These villages are sustaining their ODF status and have systems in place for managing solid and liquid waste.
- The top five performing states are Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh where the maximum number of villages have been declared as ODF Plus.