Researchers at IISER Bhopal to study atmospheric CO emissions
- The Government of India has established IISERs at Berhampur, Bhopal, Kolkata, Mohali, Pune, Thiruvananthapuram and Tirupati to integrate and promote interdisciplinary science education and research.
- They are autonomous Institutions Under Ministry of Education, Govt. of India.
About Greenhouse Gases
- Greenhouse gases are those gases in the atmosphere that have an influence on the earth’s energy balance. They cause the so-called greenhouse effect.
- The best known greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane and nitrous oxide, can be found naturally in low concentrations in the atmosphere.
- However, the proportion has increased significantly since the beginning of the last century due to various man-made sources.
About Carbon Monoxide (CO)
- Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas that is slightly lighter than air. It is sometimes called carbonic oxide, exhaust gas or flue gas.
- Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of any fuel that contains carbon. This includes petrol, natural gas, oil and propane, as well as coal and wood products.
- It can also kill within minutes in high concentrations. When inhaled, it bonds with the hemoglobin in the blood, which is responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body.
- The carbon monoxide replaces the oxygen molecules in hemoglobin and deprives the heart, brain and body of the oxygen it needs to function. High concentrations can displace enough oxygen in your body to cause oxygen starvation.
- Carbon monoxide (CO) is not considered a direct greenhouse gas, mostly because it does not absorb terrestrial thermal IR energy strongly enough. However, CO is able to modulate the production of methane and tropospheric ozone.
COVID-19 and greenhouse gases
- Due to COVID-19 pandemic induced lockdowns, globally there is reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
- We have seen a drop in the world’s carbon footprint by 2.6 gigatonnes (Gt) – which is almost equal to India’s annual emissions (~3 Gt).
Why in the news?
- Researchers from IISER Bhopal have developed an Innovative data model fusion technique which consists of high-resolution atmospheric CO (carbon monoxide) modelling technique.
- It uses data from Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite (It is an European Space Agency Satellite).
- It is capable of devising strategies to address air quality issues faced by both agricultural sectors and in megacities across India, particularly with respect to Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru.
- This is to assess and provide insights to India on improving air quality.
- As already COVID lockdowns have reduced the emissions this model helps India to keep low emissions further.
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