What’s in News:
- Rajamahendravaram celebrated the completion of one thousand years of the coronation of Raja Raja Narendra(Easter Chalukya Dynasty), who ruled the city in 1022. His regime came to an end in 1061.
- Rajamahendravaram was Built by Eastern Chalukya king Raja Raja Nerendra on the banks of the Godavari river.
- An exhibition was conducted in memory and amongst it was a gold coin with the image of varaha- “boar”(an official symbol of Eastern Chalukyas) and text in Early Telugu script.
- Between the sixth and the twelfth centuries, the Chalukyas controlled a portion of Southern and Central India. Three separate but related Chalukya dynasties existed.
- The Badami Chalukyas were the earliest Chalukyas, with their capital at Karnataka’s Badami (Vatapi). They came to power in the middle of the sixth century and went into decline following the passing of Pulakesin II, their greatest ruler, in 642 AD.
- Following Pulakesin II’s demise, the Eastern Chalukyas appeared in the Eastern Deccan, with Vengi as their capital. Until the eleventh century, they reigned.
- Western Chalukyas appeared in the latter part of the tenth century and reigned from Kalyani as Western Chalukyas, descended from the Badami Chalukyas.
Major Badami Chalukya Kings
- The first king of the Chalukyas was Jayasimha.
- Pulakesin I established the empire with Vatapi(Badami) as his capital during his 543–566 AD reign. He performed Ashwamedha.
- Pulakesin II’s rule (609 AD – 642 AD) marked the apex of the Chalukya dynasty.
- The Aihole inscription from 634 AD provides details about him. His court poet Ravikirti used the Kannada script to pen this inscription in Sanskrit.
- The Kadambas, Gangas of Mysore, Mauravas of North Konkan, Latas of Gujarat, Malavas, and Gurjars were all ultimately subdued by Pulakesin II.
- Additionally, he was successful in forcing the rulers of the Chola, Chera, and Pandya to submit.
- He had also defeated King Harsha of Kannauj and Mahendravarman of the Pallavas.
- He kept diplomatic relations with Khusru II, the king of Persia.
- Chinese Buddhist scholar Xuanzang(Hiuen Tsang) traveled to his kingdom.
- In a series of conflicts he had with the Pallavas, he was defeated and slain by Mahendravarman’s son and successor Narasimhavarman I.
- Kirtivarman II(746 AD – 753 AD)- The last of the Chalukya kings and Vikramaditya I’s great-great-grandson. was overthrown by Dantidurga, the ruler of the Rashtrakutas.
Information about the Chalukyas
- The Chalukyas had a strong army made up of an elephant unit, cavalry, infantry, and a powerful navy.
- They made significant contributions to the growth of Telugu and Kannada literature.
- Nagari and Kannada legends were inscribed on the coins.
- Sanskrit and the regional tongues both flourished. According to a 7th century inscription, Kannada was the language of the common people while Sanskrit was the language of the nobility.
- Despite being Hindus, the Chalukya kings were tolerant towards Buddhism and Jainism.
- Temples in Aihole include the Surya, Durga, Huchimalligudi temples, and Jain temples built by Ravikirti at Meguti.
- UNESCO World Heritage site Pattadakkal- Virupaksha and Sangameshwara Temples (both in the Dravida style), as well as Papanatha Temple (Nagara style.)
Art, And Architecture
- They produced coins with lotus, a lion or a boar facing right, and cryptograms depicting temples.
- They constructed cave temples with both religious and secular elements.
- The temples also featured stunning mural artwork.
- The temples built by the Chalukyas serve as excellent examples of Vesara architecture (Dravida and Nagara styles are combined to create Vesara style.)