Why in News:
- Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur, have discovered that a particular gene (DLX1) which plays an important role in the development of jaws, skeleton, and interneurons in the brain has an important role to play in the growth and development of prostate cancer.
What is prostate cancer?
- Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate.
- The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.
What did they find?
- The DLX1 protein is found at elevated levels in prostate cancer patients, the reason why the DLX1 protein has been used as a urine-based biomarker.
- Researchers have found that the DLX1 protein, which is expressed at higher levels in the prostate cancer cells, has a huge role in the growth and development of the tumour and the spread of the cancer to other organs in the body (metastasis).
India and cancer
- Cancer continues to be one of the top causes of adult illness and mortality worldwide, including in India, attributable to chronic and non-communicable diseases (NCD).
- Cancer is the second biggest cause of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), with roughly 18 million cases reported in 2018, 1.5 million of which were in India alone.
- The report said that one in 10 Indians will develop cancer during their lifetime, and one in 15 Indians will die of cancer.
- Under the National Health Mission, the National Programme for the Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Stroke (NPCDCS) is being implemented. The main components include raising cancer prevention awareness, screening, early detection, and referral to an appropriate treatment facility.
- The National Tobacco Control Program was established to raise awareness about the harmful consequences of tobacco use and to reduce tobacco demand and supply.
- To satisfy the financial demands of cancer treatment, the Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN) was established.
- National Cancer Grid (NCG) is an Indian network of major cancer centres, research institutes, patient groups, and charitable institutions with the mission of establishing uniform patient care standards for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, providing specialised training and education in oncology, and facilitating collaborative basic, translational, and clinical research in cancer.
- Tertiary Care for Cancer’ initiative to establish individual institutions in each state.