- GAGAN is an Indian Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) launched by the Indian government in 2015. GAGAN stands for GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation.
- SBAS is a wide area augmentation system that provides augmented accuracy and integrity to a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) navigation signal such as GPS.
- GAGAN is implemented to provide required accuracy, continuity, availability, and integrity to enable users/aircrafts to rely on GPS for all phases of flight.
- It was developed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
- There are only four Space-Based augmentation systems available in the world namely India (GAGAN), the United States (Wide Area Augmentation System- WAAS) Europe (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service- EGNOS) and Japan (MTSAT Satellite Augmentation System- MSAS).
- GAGAN is the first such system developed for India and neighbouring countries in the equatorial region.
How does it work?
- GAGAN consists of a set of ground reference stations positioned across various locations in India called Indian Reference Station (INRES), which gathers GPS satellite data. A master station, Indian Master Control Centre (INMCC) collects data from reference stations and creates GPS correction messages.
- The corrected differential messages are uplinked via Indian Uplink Station (INLUS) and then broadcasted on a signal from three geostationary satellites (GSAT-8, GSAT-10 and GSAT-15). The information on this signal is compatible with basic GPS signal structure, which means any SBAS enabled GPS receiver can read this signal.
- GAGAN GEO footprint expands from Africa to Australia and GAGAN system has capability to cater 45 reference stations for expansion to neighbouring countries.
Benefits from GAGAN
- GAGAN system is being used for effective management of wildlife resources and monitoring of forests.
- It can provide navigational support to Indian railways for signalling.
- The Road Asset Management System (RAMS) is likely to be developed for all National Highways in the country and a modern management system that will use the GAGAN system.
- GAGAN signals can also be used to manage traffic in real time to avoid traffic jams.
Why in News?
- The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) are gearing up to boost drone capabilities for the Indian armed forces using the Indian GPS GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation).