Explain the effect of impact of global warming and anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs.
Coral reefs are one of the world’s most biologically diverse marine ecosystems. Coral reefs play an important role in marine ecosystems by providing habitat for marine flora and fauna.
Climate change is putting the vast diversity of animal and plant species that contribute to its system at risk. India has very few coral reef areas, despite its 7,500-kilometer-long coastline
and subtropical climate.
Importance of coral reefs
● Corals occupy only 0.1% of the global sea surfaces; but more than 25% of marine
biodiversity is supported by them
● Degradation and loss of coral reefs can affect about 4.5 million people in southeast Asia
and the Indian Ocean, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC)’s Sixth Assessment Report on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
● The reefs are being bleached and are dying due to changes in the beneficial
microorganisms of coral, caused by environmental stress.
● The oceans absorb more than 93 per cent of the excessive heat from global warming
and this heat negatively affects the corals.
● Oceans are absorbing more carbon dioxide as CO2 levels rise. This increases the acidity
of the ocean and inhibits corals’ ability to form calcareous skeletons, which is necessary
● Increased nutrient concentrations have an impact on corals by encouraging
phytoplankton growth, which in turn supports an increase in the number of organisms
competing for space with coral.
● Land clearing and coastal construction cause high rates of erosion and a higher density
of suspended silt particles, which can suffocate corals by settling out (sedimentation),
reducing light availability (turbidity), and potentially reducing coral photosynthesis and
● Overfishing, pollution from agricultural and industrial runoff, coral mining, and
industrial development near coral ecosystems all have a negative impact on corals.
● Stopping unplanned coastal development would go a long way toward reversing the
decline of reefs in some areas.
● Coral conservation can be aided by encouraging sustainable fishing and providing
opportunities for ecotourism.
● Chemically enhanced fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides, which are non-
biodegradable and harm corals, must be reduced.
● Before being disposed of in bodies of water, hazardous industrial waste must be treated.
● Water pollution should be avoided as much as possible by not dumping chemicals or
oils into bodies of water.
● Taking all possible precautions to avoid actions that worsen global warming, as climate
change is the most serious global threat to coral reef ecosystems.
How to structure
- Give an intro about coral reefs.
- Explain how global warming and anthropogenic activities is affecting the coral reefs
- Mention the impact of the adverse effect on coral reefs
- Suggest measures
Corals: Made up of calcareous skeletons of thousands of marine organisms.
Coral Reef: Shallow rock layers created by deposition of corals.
Factors affecting coral Reef:
1.Salt water- Fresh water and highly saline water is harmful for growth while clear salt water is suitable for coral growth.
2.Anthropogenic activities like over fishing, coral mining, and introduction of industrial revolution.
3.Climate Conditions – Stable climate condition is necessary for coral Growth.
4.Increasing Acidity of ocean water affecta the corals.
5.Land clearing for construction and any other purposes causes harmful for corals
6. Changes in weather induces more radiation which affects coral bleaching.
1.affects the planktons.
2.Chemical Pollution- The chemicals which has been excreted from the industries causes coral reef.
3.Coral reefs along the coast promotes tourism, which can be affected while we destroy the coral.
4.Corals generally provides habitat for marine animals which can be affected.
Measures for coral safety
1. Not approving the construction of industries near corals.
2. Prohibiting the polluting particles in corals.
3.Reducing human activities near corals.
The corals contributes about 25% for worlds marine life. We can safeguard corals by strictly imposing Punishments for anthropogenic activities. As*global warming is also a concern for corals we can reduce global warming by planting trees, reducing usage of vehicles, and also the emission of smoke from industries.