What’s in the news?
- International Day for Biological Diversity was celebrated on May 23.
- The United Nations General Assembly designated May 22 as International Day for Biological Diversity in December 2000.
- The day is celebrated to raise awareness about the environment and all species that live on this planet. The theme of this year’s International Day for Biological Diversity is –Building a shared future for all life.
Convention on Biological Diversity
- Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is dedicated to promoting sustainable development.
- Conceived as a practical tool for translating the principles of Agenda 21 into reality, the Convention recognizes that biological diversity is about more than plants, animals and micro organisms and their ecosystems – it is about people and our need for food security, medicines, fresh air and water, shelter, and a clean and healthy environment in which to live.
- India is a party to CBD and enacted the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity.
- Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations for sustainable development, covering a wide range of specific natural resources and the role of different groups, as well as issues of social and economic development and implementation.
- It is a product of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
- The CBD entered into force on 29 December 1993. It has 3 main objectives:
- The conservation of biological diversity
- The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity
- The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources
- The ‘Aichi Targets’ were adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD (COP10) which took place in Nagoya, Japan in 2010.
- During the meeting, the parties agreed that previous biodiversity protection targets were not achieved, and therefore they needed to come up with new plans and targets.
- The short-term plan provides a set of 20 time-bound, measurable targets to be met by the year 2020, collectively known as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, grouped under five Strategic Goals.
Protocols to CBD
- The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
- It entered into force in 2003. Number of Parties: 173 (including India).
- The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way.
- It entered into force in 2014. Number of Parties: 129 (including India).
Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol
- Adopted as a supplementary agreement to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety aims to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity by providing international rules and procedures in the field of liability and redress relating to living modified organisms.
- It entered into force in 2018. Number of Parties: 49 (including India).