Why in News:
- The Ukraine-Russia conflict is expected to further impact the already stressed global semiconductor supply as raw material exported from the two countries such as neon gas, chemical C4F6 and palladium.
- Ukraine crisis will result in shortages of key raw materials, eventually affecting the semiconductor supply chain
- India would also face some direct or indirect impact in its electronics manufacturing.
- Consumer appliances sector in India is more likely to be impacted by the increase in prices of other raw materials such as steel. Semiconductor shortage is expected to put pressure on the supply of smartphones, laptops and automobiles.
What is C4F6
- Hexafluorobutadiene(C4F6) is an organofluorine compound
- A colorless gas, it has attracted attention as an etchant in microelectronics(Etching is used in microfabrication to chemically remove layers from the surface of a wafer during manufacturing.)
- It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal
- Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). They have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them.
- More than half the supply of palladium is used in catalytic converters, which convert as much as 90% of the harmful gases in automobile exhaust.
- Palladium is used for multi-layer ceramic (chip) capacitors (MLCC). MLCCs store energy in electronic devices such as broadcasting equipment, mobile telephones, computers, electronic lighting and high voltage circuits.
- Palladium is also used in electronics, dentistry, medicine, hydrogen purification, chemical applications, groundwater treatment, and jewelry.
- Palladium is a key component of fuel cells, in which hydrogen and oxygen react to produce electricity, heat, and water.
- Neon (Ne) is a chemical element that is used in electric signs and fluorescent lamps.
- It is an inert gas belonging to Group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic chart.
- Neon is the fifth most abundant element in the universe. However, it is present in the Earth’s atmosphere at a concentration of just 18 parts per million
- Neon gas is colourless, odourless, tasteless, and lighter than air, and it is found in trace amounts in Earth’s atmosphere and trapped inside the crust’s rocks.
- Neon will not react with any other substance. It is used for lithography in semiconductor fabrication. Because of its short wavelength, it can produce patterns in the wafer chip as small as 193 nanometres.
- Neon is also used to make high-voltage indicators and switching gear, lightning arresters, diving equipment and lasers.
- Liquid neon is an important cryogenic refrigerant. It has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium, and more than 3 times that of liquid hydrogen.